Myanmar

Bangladesh StatsSub-national Statistical Data

A web-based facility for storing and access of sub-national agricultural statistical data files from the country source. National focal points are responsible for maintaining the database.

 

- Link to Country Profile of FAO Statistical Year Book 2006

- Metadata for National Agricultural Statistics


Agricultural Statistics System of Myanmar

I. Introduction

 

Myanmar MapMyanmar is an agricultural country and agriculture sector is the back bone of its economy, contributes 44% ( 2002-2003 ) of GDP; 34%( 2001-2002) of total export earnings and employs 61.4% (2002-2003 ) of the labor force.


The agriculture sector remains basic in the national economy of Myanmar. 75% of the total population reside in rural areas and are principally engaged in agriculture, livestock and fishery sector for their livelihood. And the progressive achievements in the agriculture sector covering production, services and trade, accrue to national development.


II. National Agricultural Statistics System

 

The statistical system of Myanmar is a decentralized system. Planning and Statistics Department exists in almost all Ministries and statistics are collected and compiled independently by each ministry to serve their own purposes. The Central Statistical Organization collects data in accordance with the 1952 Central Statistical Authority Act No. (34) and plays a key role in the national system of statistical information.

 

The major government agencies that produce primary agricultural statistics are :

 

  •  Settlements and Land Records Department (SLRD) under Ministry of Agriculture and
      Irrigation (MOAI)


  • Myanmar Agriculture Service under MOAI

  • Forest Department under Ministry of Forestry (MOF)

  • Timber Enterprise of Ministry of Forestry

  • Fisheries Department under Ministry of Livestock Breeding and Fisheries (MLBF)

  • Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department under MLBF

 

Each planning department under the three ministries (MOAI, MOF, MLBF) is responsible to monitor the performance and to formulate the short, medium and long term plan based on the collected statistics.Department of Agricultural Planning (DAP) under MOAI regularly collects the performance of crop agencies and disseminates the statistical information on the weekly, monthly and yearly basis. Collected data are also shared to Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development for the purpose of analysis at national level. Central Statistical Organization also annually disseminates the agricultural information with the cooperation of SLRD and DAP. Other government agencies also produce primary agricultural statistics as a result of routine administrative functions or from holding ad-hoc surveys.


III. Sources of Food and Agricultural Statistics

 

Central Statistical Organization (CSO)
CSO is the only authoritative organization in Myanmar that has the mandate to collect, process, organize and supply data for the use of planners, policy makers and other users in the country as well as international bodies. It is one of the prime function to provide timely and reliable data to those who are in needs of statistical information. CSO sometimes collects data by means of physical observation, personal interview, small enquiry, method of registration, transcription from official records and conducting surveys. All organized data in CSO are processed stage by stage before presenting final results.


CSO conducts various sample surveys to fill the gaps in the existing statistics to provide users with data, which they require from time to time. CSO uses proper sampling designs in order to get multipurpose data related to economic, social and population conditions with limited resources accompanied by statements on the precision of estimates made on sample observations.

 

Surveys conducted in recent years as well as in the past by CSO are:

Household Income and Expenditure Survey (1997),

National Mortality Survey (1997),

Sample Survey on Evaluation of Vital Registration System (1995),
Ground Nut Survey (1978),

Agriculture Survey (1972-73, 1981-82, 1983-84),
Industry Survey (1975-76, 1977-78, 1978-79, 1980-81),

Transportation Survey (1965-66),

Water Craft Survey (1970-71),

Livestock Survey (1973-74).

Settlement and Land Records Department
The Settlements and Land Records Department (SLRD) is the only government agency with the mandate to collect and disseminate agricultural statistics. SLRD's statistical activities include;

 

(i) Monitoring the progress of land preparation and cropping; condition of weather and crops,
(ii) Making crop forecasts,
(iii) Carrying out periodic crop surveys,
(iv) Compiling data on farmer and farm size distribution,
(v) Taking annual inventory of agricultural machinery and implements for the whole country, and
(vi) Compiling the annual Season and Crop Report which provides statistics on rainfall; land use; irrigation and flood protection; crop acreage, yield per acre and production; multiple cropping; inventory of agricultural machinery and implements.


SLRD operates through a network of 17 states / divisions and 287 Township Land Records offices together having a nation-wide coverage. The field staff at land records offices consists of 6917 surveyors who report to 1946 supervisors who in turn report to the township land records officers.

 

Myanmar Agriculture Service
Myanmar Agriculture Service under the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation is responsible to do agricultural research and extension developments. Having more than 8000 extension agents down to the village level in the whole country, MAS produces primary statistics on procurement, distribution and use of agricultural inputs. It also cooperates with SLRD in the collection of crop statistics.

 

Forest Department ( Ministry of Forestry)
The Forest department under the Ministry of Forestry produces forest resources data, statistics on primary forest products and data on forest revenue. The Timber Enterprise produces statistics on timber extraction, saw milling, and trade involving forest products, particularly in the public sector.

 

Fisheries Department
The Fisheries Department has a statistics section. It is responsible for compiling fisheries statistics for planning, survey of socio-economic conditions of fishermen, appraisal of fresh water and marine fisheries and survey of marketing of fish.

 

Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department
The Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department (LBVD) is responsible for carrying out the annual censuses of livestock since 1978. Formerly SLRD was responsible for producing data on livestock. LBVD is also responsible for estimating the annual production of livestock and livestock products.


IV. Statistical Services of SLRD

 

The Settlement and Land Records Department collects area based statistics and production statistics primarily through its Crop Forecasts and Crop Survey Operations.

 

- Crop Forecasting
Forecasts give data on sown area, matured area, yield per acre and total production for 14 important crops. These crops are: (1) Monsoon Rice, (2) Summer Rice (3) Monsoon Groundnut, (4) Winter Groundnut, (5) Early-monsoon Sesame, (6) Late-monsoon and winter Sesame. (7) Summer Sesame (8) Wagyi Cotton, (9) Mahlaing 5/6 Cotton, (10) Long Staple Cotton, (11) Jute, (12) Sugarcane, (13) Wheat, and (14) Rubber.

 

Usually three forecasts are made for each crop. The First Forecast is scheduled to coincide with the usual seeding time and the Last Forecast with the usual harvesting time of the particular crop. The figures for the forecasts are generated by surveyors visiting the field for about a week each time assessing the extent of area cropped, condition of standing crops and interviewing key farmers and other knowledgeable persons. Planned production target for the year, prevailing weather conditions, crop prices, labour availability, sufficiency of draught power and implement, agricultural financing and input situation, land disputes, allocation of land by government, performance in last five years as reflecting the recent trends, are taken into account in preparing and editing the forecasts.

 

- Crop Surveys
Crop Surveys are carried out to produce reliable data on crop acreage and production. The manner in which they are executed permits also the compilation of data on land use, cropping pattern, irrigation and flood-protection, and farm size distribution among others. The crop surveys are meant to cover all crops grown in an agricultural year; therefore three crop surveys, each of which is timed to coincide with the major growing seasons, are carried out annually.

 

The Monsoon Crop Survey covers all the pre-monsoon and early-monsoon crop. Major crops are cotton, Jute, oilseeds, maize, and sugarcane. The Rice Survey covers rice as well as other major crops. The Winter-crop Survey covers post-monsoon crops such as oilseeds, wheat, pulses, tobacco, food crop and (winter-rice).

 

The basic material for crop survey is the '' Kwin'' map or cadastral map which covers an area of about one square mile at a scale of 1:3960 and statistical registers. A surveyor has a fixed beat of two or three village-tracts containing about 8-12 kwins with a total area of about 4000 to 6000 acres. At the scheduled time for a crop survey the surveyors visit kwins and record crop information on to the maps by each field using prescribed symbols.

 

- Crop Cutting Surveys
Yield per acre of crops is estimated through a combination of farmers' estimate, surveyors' visual assessment and in the case of specified crops, sample crop cuttings. Rice, sesame, groundnut and jute are specified for crop cutting. Regular size of a crop cutting plot is 6.6ftx6.6 ft. For rice crop, biometric variables such as plant population per acre, total number of tillers per hill, panicle
bearing tillers per hill, average number of grains per panicle, average percentage of ripened grains and weight of 1000 matured grains are measured. Alternative estimates of yield per acre are made and used for cross-checking. A non-probability, quota type of sampling is used for electing sample plots and sample farmers for interview. Three sample plots per 100 acres of each major variety of rice is selected in a kwin and the average yield per acre for a given variety by kwin is estimated. Total production is estimated at the kwin level by multiplying the harvested area of rice by the estimated yield per acre.
 

V. Census of Agriculture

 

Myanmar participated in the 1950 programme of World Census of Agriculture but the coverage was limited to over 2000 village tracts in the neighborhood of 252 towns.

 

The 1993 Census of Agriculture was carried out by SLRD with financial and technical assistance from UNDP / FAO. Support services in terms of equipment and human resources are provided by Myanmar. It covered 272 townships out of a total of 319 in the 7 states and 7 divisions of Myanmar. Sampling method was used for the first time in 1993 Census of Agriculture.

 

Based on the experiences of 1993 Census of Agriculture, SLRD conducted a series of small scale surveys on agricultural social and economic conditions in 185 townships. The primary aim for conducting the agricultural social economic surveys is to study the living standard of farm households. In 1996, Human Development Initiative Baseline Survey was carried out by SLRD with technical assistance from Macro International, Inc, USA under a contract from UNDP. The HDI Baseline Survey covered 23 townships in eight states / divisions in Myanmar. It produced social, economic and health indicators for 23 townships. Settlement office, a branch of SLRD also conducts cost of cultivation surveys on rice, groundnut, green gram, black gram, jute and sesame. SLRD is now carrying out data processing works for the conducted Myanmar Census of Agriculture 2003. FAO assisted with the TCP project of TCP/MYA/2801(A) for the preparatory works for the Myanmar Census of Agriculture 2003.

 


Proceedings on the National Seminar on the System Food and Agriculture Statistics in Myanmar, 29-30 January 2000

 

A national seminar on food and agriculture statistics was organized jointly by the Settlement and Land Records Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Myanmar and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The seminar, held on 29-30 January 2001 at the International Business Centre in Yangon, was a follow-up activity of the Japan-FAO cooperative project for the improvement of agricultural statistics in Asia-Pacific countries. Representatives from various government departments, the private sector and UN agencies took part in the seminar.
Executive Summary, Speeches and List of Participants [PDF format, 124 kb]
Resource Papers [PDF format, 446 kb]

 


Contact address of Food and Agricultural Statistics in Myanmar


Settlement and Land Records Department
Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
Thiri Mingalar Lan,
P.O. off Kaba aye Pagoda Road
Yangon
Tel.: (95-1) 665681
Fax: (95-1) 664899
Email: slrddg-hq@mptmail.net.mn
          dydg-hq@slrd-moai.gov.mn

 


Other related links:

 

 

 

To top

 

© FAO, 2008
GCP/RAS/184/JPN, FAO RAP, Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Athit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand